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Joint Implementation

The verification of Joint Implementation (JI) projects helps public and private organisations in industrialised countries (Annex I) to contribute towards achieving the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol and obtain Emission Reduction Units (ERU).

JI works similarly to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), with the exception that the host country is not a developing nation but another Annex I country. In theory, all Annex I countries are potential hosts for Joint Implementation projects, but countries with a transition economy are the most likely candidates due to the low costs which characterise them.


  • Promote sustainable development and contribute towards achieving the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol
  • obtain credits that can be traded on the carbon market or used by European companies lying within the scope of the EU Emission Trading Directive.


RINA SERVICES, being a Designated Operational Entity (DOE) accredited by UNFCCC for the Clean Development Mechanism, can approve projects that generate Emission Reduction Units according to the Track 1 procedure.

In some countries, such as Bulgaria, projects can be approved by an organisation accredited by the Executive Board for the CDM​.

RINA SERVICES also offers specialized courses and analysis related to the theme of the service: for further information please send an e-mail to ghg_services@rina.org.


Track 1 procedure: if a host Country meets all the eligibility requirements, it can
  • apply its own rules for the selection of JI projects
  • choose the criteria to use
  • deal with their registration and the transfer of credits to the participants.
The Track 1 procedure is subject to supervision by the host Country: determination of the eligibility of the project, monitoring and verification of emission reductions are subject to national rules and procedures only.


Who can participate in Joint Implementation​​ projects?
The interested party informs the secretariat of its DFP (Designated Focal Points)​​​ and the national guidelines of the procedures for the approval of JI projects. The interested party can authorise legal persons to participate in JI projects. They can only transfer and/or acquire Emission Reduction Units if the authorising party is eligible to do so. In more detail, these requirements are defined by the Marrakech Agreement.
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